Multiplication Facts

Most rising fourth graders understand the concept of multiplication - adding something multiple times. If they need to review this, please see the Repeated Addition topic of the Second Grade → Third Grade section

• Multiplication tables

• Go through this table with your student and emphasize patterns (e.g. as you go across a row or down a column, you simply add the number that is at the beginning of that row or column with each tile)

• Have your student fill in this blank table

• Tip: it would be best if you downloaded it as a document or an image (as a screenshot) to a whiteboard, notes app, or PowerPoint presentation, and filled it in yourself, as your student tells you what numbers to write.

• Memorization of multiplication facts

• This is something that can be made into a variety of fun activities.

• You can use this set of flashcards and time them

• You can use the multiplication table above and cover certain tiles and see if they can quickly say what number should be in them

• These are some games your students can play on their own time

Area

• Students must build on the work they did in the second grade with arrays (if you are not familiar with this, please see the Repeated Addition topic of the Second Grade → Third Grade section) and combine it with their knowledge of multiplication facts to find area.

• The progression from arrays to the area of shapes is as follows:

• Students initially find it difficult to distinguish the different units in a grid (the third array in the picture above), count them and recognize that the count is related to multiplication.

Division

• Understanding the concept of division

• Explain it as cutting a big group into many little groups

• Demonstrate with drawings on your white board

• Demonstrate with real life examples (e.g. Peter has 20 apples and wants to give an equal number of apples to each of four friends)

• How many times can something go into something else

• Demonstrate with diagrams of groups of items filling empty boxes

• Memorizing Division Facts

• If they memorize their multiplication facts, this is the same! Explain the pattern:

• X times Y equals Z → Z divided by Y equals X, Z divided by X equals Y

• Use the same tables & exercises that were used for multiplication

Fractions

• Understand fractions as being parts of a single whole (most students will be familiar with this)

• If need be, demonstrate with food items that would be cut up (maybe stay away from things like pizza or pie; kids get confused by the distinction between one whole pizza versus one slice; they don’t think of a slice as 1/12 of a pizza but rather 1 pizza slice. Try fruits instead)

• Students then must begin to think of fractions as points on a number line, as opposed to being just parts of a whole.

• To make that jump, students think of fractions as being units themselves. “1 fourth” becomes a unit (as opposed to the units one and ten) that equals 1 (the whole) when added four times

• Encourage students to count by fourths (or halves) the way they would with ones or tens (e.g. 1 fourth, 2 fourths, 3 fourths, 4 fourths, 5 fourths, etc.)

• Demonstrate with this virtual number line

• Activity: Encourage students to measure household objects with a ruler and round to the nearest half and fourth of an inch (as opposed to making exact measurements - they must learn to round to a specific unit). Depending on the student, this may require that you preface this activity by clearly explaining that the numberline they have become familiar with is just like a ruler - they may not make that connection on their own.

Rounding

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